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Most Secret Conduit. The Mandela Imperative. Hard Bargaining. The Thatcher Opportunity. The Fall of Botha. Face to Face. The De Klerk Revolution.
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The United States vetoed the resolution, however, beginning a forty-year history of U. On March 23, , South African police gunned down seventy-two men, women, and children in Sharpe-ville Township.
The demonstrators were protesting against the Natives Act of collectively known as the Pass Laws that required black people to carry identification with them at all times. The laws were designed to restrict the movement of black people into urban areas.
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The massacre sparked outrage around the world, and photographs of the victims became iconic images of apartheid. Although the original call for international sanctions had come from the ANC in , it was the Sharpeville Massacre that made South Africa a pariah state and precipitated international action.
South Africa was expelled from sports, cultural, and academic institutions, and on November 6, , the UN General Assembly voted to sever diplomatic, transportation, and economic relations with South Africa. Although the resolution was voluntary, it was a major victory for the anti-apartheid movement.
In response, the liberation movements went underground and into exile, where they launched the second phase of the movement: the armed struggle. This phase was characterized by the internationalization of the struggle, with regional and broader African support organized by the Organization of African Unity OAU. By the s the southern African region had become a Cold War theater, with the United States and South Africa sponsoring terrorist insurgencies and Cuba and the Soviet Union supporting the governments of Mozambique and Angola.lastsurestart.co.uk/libraries/untraceable/3199-what-is-the.php
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Meanwhile, hundreds of youth were killed in police crackdowns in South African townships such as Soweto. In the s, the movement entered a third stage: massive resistance. The movement reached its climax in this stage, which was characterized by the determination of anti-apartheid activists within South Africa to make the country ungovernable through strikes, boycotts, demonstrations, and acts of sabotage. In a coalition of the internal organizations and church groups formed the United Democratic Front to lead the new phase of the movement.
In an attempt to split the opposition, the regime offered Indians and Coloreds people of mixed race background limited franchise in the elections of The strategy failed, however, and instead galvanized further acts of civil disobedience and sabotage. Moreover, the international anti-apartheid movement had matured, and most countries in the world had imposed military and economic sanctions against South Africa.
The bill was written and proposed by Rep. Ron Dellums D-Calif. In , , African mine-workers went on strike, further undermining the economy and the legitimacy of the apartheid state. Thus, it was the combined pressures of international sanctions and internal strife that led to the demise of the apartheid state. The retreat began with the repealing of the pillars of apartheid legislation, beginning with the repeal of the pass laws in Nelson Mandela was released in , having spent twenty-seven years in prison.
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Four years later, on May 10, , Mandela was sworn in as president of South Africa. Mandela and his African National Congress won an overwhelming victory in the elections of , defeating both black and white opposition parties to become the undisputed leader of the new South Africa.