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The World Of Anatomy. Like this: Like Loading Rhiannon Kearney January 16th, at pm quite interesting, heard it before but still interesting. Myint Myat February 12th, at pm Anatomy is my life. He was totally right.

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Mohammed Majid April 8th, at am Human anatomy. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:. Email required Address never made public. Name required. Subscribe to RSS. Create a free website or blog at WordPress. Post to Cancel. The mode of glycolysis during intense exercise is anaerobic; hence lactate is formed as a result of glycolysis. Alanine is transported to liver through Glucose Alanine cycle. Glycerol is also similarly transported but not from the erythrocytes or skeletal muscles, rather from the adipose tissues.

Glycerol is a waste product in adipose tissues since without phosphorylation it cannot be utilized and the phosphorylating enzyme glycerol kinase is absent in adipose tissues. During the process of glycogen synthesis, branching enzyme creates branch points and further elongation is carried out by Glycogen synthase.

Alpha Amylase is an enzyme for digestion of starch and glycogen. Debranching enzyme deficiency results in the accumulation of abnormal glycogen, There is inability to remove the branch points, the resultant structure resembles Limit dextrin, and thus it is also called Limit dextrinosis. Sucrose, galactose and fructose are not components of starch. Even chain fatty acids, predominantly present in our body, yield Acetyl co A upon oxidation, which can not contribute towards gluconeogenesis. Alanine, pyruvate and glutamine are glucogenic.

It is not observed in Type 2 diabetes.


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Non ketotic hyperosmolar coma is a frequent complication of coma especially in the elderly group. Glucose is the true substrate for this enzyme. Fructosephosphatethe end product of Hexokinase reaction can enter glycolytic pathway to be utilized further, so it does not accumulate to produce the toxic effects.

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Aldolase A, present in all the cells of the body cleaves Fructose 1, 6 bisphosphate, the product of PFK-1 catalyzed reaction of glycolysis. Fructose to glucose conversion takes place only in the phosphorylated form. Debranching enzyme has two components. Both components are present on the same polypeptide chain. Glucose phosphatase does produce free glucose but it is absent in skeletal muscles. Alpha amylase is a digestive enzyme; it has no role in glycogen degradation in the muscle. Glycogen synthase is the regulatory enzyme for glycogen synthesis.

It adds glucose residues to the nonreducing ends of a glycogen primer from:. Glycogen phosphorylase degrades glycogen to produce-. Glucagon induces activity of:. His blood glucose level is normal. Which of the following is most important for maintenance of blood glucose?

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His blood glucose is profoundly low, and he is fed through a nasogastric tube. In glycogen, the linkage at branch points is:. The nursery staff begins overnight feeds by nasogastric tube because they find that the child consistently has low blood glucose. A liver biopsy and molecular studies demonstrate an absence of Glycogen synthetase.

The normal function of this enzyme is to do which of the followings? A workup including an ultrasound of his liver shows cirrhosis.

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A biopsy of liver demonstrates a deficiency of an enzyme involved in glycogen synthesis. Which of the following is the most likely glycogen storage disease? On physical examination, organomegaly is appreciated due to accumulation of glycogen in the lysosomes of several organs, including the heart, muscle and liver. Which of the following biochemical deficits are seen in this disorder?

Caffeine inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase. The activity of muscle glycogen synthase in resting muscles is increased by the action of which of the following? Which of the following GSD is most likely the cause of hypoglycemia and subsequent seizures? In most of these, glucose 6-phosphate is oxidized to 6- phosphogluconate, which is then further metabolized by:.

In preparation for his tour of duty, he is given a prophylactic dose of primaquine to prevent malaria. Several days after he develops fatigue and hemolytic anemia. Which of the following enzymes is likely deficient? He is diagnosed with thiamine deficiency. Why is the pathway less active in skeletal muscle? Work up reveals elevated serum levels of lactate, alanine, pyruvate and keto acids. Based on the clinical presentation,pyruvate carboxylase activity is measured using fibroblasts from a skin biopsy and is found to be markedly decreased.

This enzyme is normally used to directly synthesize which of the following molecules? Which of the following is the most likely cause of her hyperglycemia? A glucose tolerance test confirms the diagnosis of diabetes. He is placed on Metformin, which works by which of the following mechanisms? After his first game of the year, he is brought to see his pediatrician because of his severe muscle cramps and blood in urine.

He is subsequently found to be having deficiency of lactate dehydrogenase. This enzyme is important in which of the following conversions? The child is also irritable with a moderate degree of hepatomegaly. He is found to have a normal level of muscle fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase but decreased level of liver isoform. Which of the following statement is true of fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase?

Physical examination is remarkable for palpably enlarged liver and kidneys. Blood biochemistry reveals lactic acidemia. A nutritionist tells the patient that he most likely has the deficiency of vitamin Biotin. Which of the following enzymes is unable to catalyze its step in synthesizing glucose from pyruvate? The patient is diagnosed with Arsenic poisoning,that inhibits which of the following enzymes of TCA cycle?

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After an extensive workup , he is diagnosed with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency. Which of the following cofactors is not required by this enzyme to convert pyruvate to Acetyl co A? His physical examination is unremarkable except for the skin findings of multiple pale masses which appear to be xanthomas. Xanthomas are generally associated with the underlying hypercholesterolemia. Which of the following is utilized as a precursor for cholesterol biosynthesis?

The child was diagnosed with ammonia intoxication due to some urea cycle disorder.

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Which of the following intermediates of TCA cycle is involved in the formation of Glutamate? Which of the following intermediates of TCA cycle can be directly converted to phosphoenolpyruvate to trigger the pathway of gluconeogenesis?


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  • Blood biochemistry reveals lactic acidosis. How much energy yield ATP per mol of glucose is expected in such a condition? Which of the following enzymes catalyzes an anaplerotic reaction? A patient has chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, enough oxygen is not reaching her tissues. A year- old woman is diagnosed with breast cancer. The oncologist orders a positron emission tomography PET scan of the head to rule out metastasis.

    This imaging modality covalently links a radioactive isotope most commonly to Glucose to appreciate highly active areas in the body such as tumor. Which of the following traps the tracer in the cell? He has also noticed that he is constantly thirsty and hungry. The patient is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. If this is a problem at the level of glucose transporters , which tissue would be most affected?

    Her coach instructed her to keep a pace that allows her to stay below her anaerobic threshold. Under such conditions pyruvate does not accumulate as it is converted to-. Glucagon is released under such condition. Blood smear indicates red blood cells that are more rigid in appearance than normal. A diagnosis of pyruvate kinase deficiency is made. What products would be made in low amounts? Red blood cell isolated from the patient showed abnormally low-level of lactate. Fluoride is an inhibitor of glycolysis. Which of the following enzymes is inhibited by fluoride?

    The phosphofructokinase-2 enzyme that transfers a phosphate group to fructosephosphate in glycolysis-. The enzyme that produces NADH from a triose phosphate in the glycolytic pathway-. The enzyme that catalyzes first substrate level phosphorylation in glycolysis-. The enzyme that catalyzes the second substrate level phosphorylation of glycolysis-. Which of the following statements about the Lactate dehydrogenase LDH reaction is false. The two major factors determining whether a cell oxidizes glucose by aerobic glycolysis or by anaerobic glycolysis are-.

    All of the following help to explain some cases of Lactic Acidosis except-. All of the following are part of the Cori Cycle except-.


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    Which of the following statements about pyruvate kinase is false —. Pasteur effect is due to inhibition of glycolysis by high concentration of —.