Creating a project with Pascal offers a great way to understand and reinforce concepts. If you are serious about learning Pascal, then you must check out this series of tutorials. Video Tutorials Sometimes reading articles to learn about Pascal can be quite laborious which is why you should check out the following video tutorials. Free Pascal Program Tutorials is a series of video tutorials covering various lessons including compiler installation, variables, loops, functions, and reading text files.
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This series of video tutorials presents a broad range of topics that will give you a great start in learning the language. Pascal Tutorial is another series of tutorials that covers basic concepts of Pascal including variables and functions. The compiler used in this tutorial is the free Bloodshed Dev Pascal. Write a Pong Game in Pascal presents several tutorials on creating your own pong game. The tutorial uses the Lazarus IDE, available for free, to create the game.
Lazurus Installation shows how to install the free IDE integrated development environment and Pascal compiler on Windows. Online Courses Since Pascal is not a widely used development language, not many courses are available online. The following courses demonstrate basic Pascal programming concepts and how to build programs without having any background knowledge: Learn Pascal Programming from Scratch Learn to Program with Pascal Books on Pascal Another way to master the Pascal programming language is through books.
Getting Started with Lazarus and Free Pascal: A beginners and intermediate guide to Free Pascal using Lazarus IDE , by Menkaura Abiola-Ellison, provides an introduction to Pascal programming and covers several concepts including records, variables, data types, and functions. Advanced programming concepts are also covered by the book include graphics programming and databases.
Object Pascal Handbook , by Marco Cantu, introduces the basics of the Pascal programming language as well as object oriented concepts. Some of the object oriented programming topics described are inheritance, exception handling, generics, class manipulation, and the Object class. Object-Oriented Programming in Pascal: A Graphical Approach , by Conner, Niguidula, and van Dam, is designed to present the basics of the Pascal language as well as advanced object oriented concepts including communication between objects.
Pascal Programming and Problem Solving , by Sanford Leestma and Larry Nyhoff, introduces many aspects of the Pascal programming language covering various topics including data structures, modular programming, and arrays. The book provides several coding examples and exercises to help better learn the concepts. The Pocket Guide to Pascal , by Joe Dorward, provides a short and quick reference to the Pascal programming language and includes basic syntax and relevant code snippets. Is It Worthwhile Learning Pascal? Further Reading and Resources We have more guides, tutorials, and infographics related to coding and development: Fortran Resources : one of the very first high level languages, still widely used in scientific programming.
Prolog Resources : Prolog was an early logic programming language. More commands Writeln is just like Write except that it moves the cursor onto the next line after it has printed the words. Here is a program that will print "Hello" and then "world" on the next line: program Hello; begin Writeln 'Hello' ; Write 'world' ; Readln; end. Using commands from units The commands that are built into your Pascal compiler are very basic and we will need a few more.
Units can be included in a program to give you access to more commands. The crt unit is one of the most useful. The ClrScr command in the crt unit clears the screen. Comments Comments are things that are used to explain what parts of a program do. Comments are ignored by the compiler and are only there for the people who use the source code. Comments must be put between curly brackets.
You should always have a comment at the top of your program to say what it does as well as comments for any code that is difficult to understand. Indentation You will notice that I have put 3 spaces in front of some of the commands. This is called indentation and it is used to make a program easier to read. A lot of beginners do not understand the reason for indentation and don't use it but when we start making longer, more complex programs, you will understand.
The TextBackground command changes the color of the background of text. If you want to change the whole screen to a certain color then you must use ClrScr. In DOS, the screen is 80 characters wide and 25 characters high. The height and width varies on other platforms. You may remember graphs from Maths which have a X and a Y axis. Screen coordinates work in a similar way. Here is an example of how to move the cursor to the 10th column in the 5th row. Windows Windows let you define a part of the screen that your output will be confined to. If you create a window and clear the screen it will only clear what is in the window.
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The Window command has 4 parameters which are the top left coordinates and the bottom right coordinates. Sound The Sound command makes a sound at the frequency you give it. It does not stop making a sound until the NoSound command is used.
The Delay command pauses a program for the amount of milliseconds you tell it to. Delay is used between Sound and NoSound to make the sound last for a certain amount of time. What are variables? Variables are names given to blocks of the computer's memory. The names are used to store values in these blocks of memory. Variables can hold values which are either numbers, strings or Boolean. We already know what numbers are. Strings are made up of letters. Boolean variables can have one of two values, either True or False.
Using variables You must always declare a variable before you use it. We use the var statement to do this. You must also choose what type of variable it is. Here is a table of the different variable types: Byte Word ShortInt Integer LongInt Real Char String Boolean 0 to 0 to to to to floating point values 1 character up to characters true or false. Here is an example of how to declare an integer variable named i: program Variables; var i: Integer;. You can also create variables of a different type without the need for another var statemtent.
When you assign a value to a string variable, you must put it between single quotes. Boolean variables can only be assigned the values True and False. Calculations with variables Variables can be used in calculations. For example you could assign the value to a variable and then add the number 1 to it. The following example shows a few calculations that can be done: program Variables; var Num1, Num2, Ans: Integer;.
Strings hold characters. Characters include the the letters of the alphabet as well as special characters and even numbers. It is important to understand that integer numbers and string numbers are different things. You can add strings together as well. All that happens is it joins the 2 strings. If you add the strings '1' and '1' you will get '11' and not 2. You can read vales from the keyboard into variables using Readln and ReadKey.
ReadKey is from the crt unit and only reads 1 character. Printing variables on the screen is just as easy. If you want to print variables and text with the same Writeln then seperate them with commas. Constants Constants are like variables except that their values can't change. You assign a value to a constant when you create it.
Constants are used for values that do not change such as the value of pi. Learn Pascal Programming Tutorial Lesson 4 - String Handling and Conversions String Handling You can access a specific character in a string if you put the number of the position of that character in square brackets behind a string.
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To find the position of a string within a string use the Pos command. The Delete command removes characters from a string. The Copy command is like the square brackets but can access more than just one character. Parameters: 1: String to copy characters from 2: Position to copy from 3: Amount of characters to copy program Strings; var s, t: String;. Insert will insert characters into a string at a certain position. Parameters: 1: String that will be inserted into the other string 2: String that will have characters inserted into it 3: Position to insert characters program Strings; var s: String;.
The ParamStr command will give you the command-line parameters that were passed to a program. ParamCount will tell you how many parameters were passed to the program. Parameter 0 is always the program's name and from 1 upwards are the parameters that have been typed by the user. Conversions The Str command converts an integer to a string. Int will give you the number before the comma in a real number. Frac will give you the number after the comma in a real number.
Round will round off a real number to the nearest integer. Trunc will give you the number before the comma of a real number as an integer. Computers use the numbers 0 to 1 byte to represent characters internally and these are called ASCII characters. The Ord command will convert a character to number and the Chr command will convert a number to a character.
Using a in front of a number will also convert it to a character. The UpCase command changes a character from a lowercase letter to and uppercase letter.
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There is no lowercase command but you can do it by adding 32 to the ordinal value of an uppercase letter and then changing it back to a character. Extras The Random command will give you a random number from 0 to the number you give it - 1. The Random command generates the same random numbers every time you run a program so the Randomize command is used to make them more random by using the system clock.
Learn Pascal Programming Tutorial Lesson 5 - Decisions if then else The if statement allows a program to make a decision based on a condition. The following example asks the user to enter a number and tells you if the number is greater than 5: program Decisions; var i: Integer;. The above example only tells you if the number is greater than 5. If you want it to tell you that it is not greater than 5 then we use else.
When you use else you must not put a semi-colon on the end of the command before it. If the condition is True then the then part is chosen but if it is False then the else part is chosen. You can even assign the result of a Boolean equation to a Boolean variable. If you want to use more than 1 condition then you must put each condition in brackets.
If you use AND then both conditions must be true but if you use OR then only 1 or both of the conditions must be true. If you want to put 2 or more commands for an if statement for both the then and the else parts you must use begin and end; to group them together. You will see that this end has a semi-colon after it instead of a full stop. You can also use if statements inside other if statements. Case The case command is like an if statement but you can have many conditions with actions for each one.
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For example, if you wanted to print "Hello" on the screen 10 times you would need 10 Writeln commands. You could do the same thing by putting 1 Writeln command inside a loop which repeats itself 10 times. There are 3 types of loops which are the for loop, while loop and repeat until loop. For loop The for loop uses a loop counter variable, which it adds 1 to each time, to loop from a first number to a last number.
If you want to have more than 1 command inside a loop then you must put them between a begin and an end. While loop The while loop repeats while a condition is true. The condition is tested at the top of the loop and not at any time while the loop is running as the name suggests. This tutorial uses the Free Pascal Compiler. Your first program The first thing to do is to either open your IDE if your compiler comes with one or open a text editor. We always start a program by typing its name. Type program and the name of the program next to it.
We will call our first program "Hello" because it is going to print the words "Hello world" on the screen. We are going to type the main body of the program between these 2 keywords. Remember to put the full stop after the end. The Write command prints words on the screen. You will see that the "Hello world" is between single quotes. This is because it is what is called a string. All strings must be like this.
The semi-colon at the end of the line is a statement separator.