Be the first to write a review About this product. About this product Product Information Across the country prisons are jammed to capacity, and in extreme cases, barges and mobile homes are used to stem the overflow.
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Probation officers in some cities have caseloads of and more. Additional Product Features Author s. Show more Show less. No ratings or reviews yet. Be the first to write a review. Best-selling in Non Fiction See all. The Secret by Rhonda Byrne Hardback, Cite this Email this Add to favourites Print this page. You must be logged in to Tag Records. In the Library Request this item to view in the Library's reading rooms using your library card. Details Collect From Order a copy Copyright or permission restrictions may apply. We will contact you if necessary. To learn more about Copies Direct watch this short online video.
Need help? How do I find a book? Can I borrow this item? Federal probation officers are directed to consider such cost savings as part of their presentence reports: 1.
Supervision in the Community: Probation and Parole - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology
We ask that probation officers begin to reference the updated costs in their presentence reports. Offenders and their families can benefit as well.
Offenders are not separated from their families and communities, and can continue to work at legitimate jobs to provide both family income and fine payments. Day fines have numerous system applications. They can be used in lieu of prison, jail and community supervision. When used in conjunction with suspended sentences, day fines approach probation in terms of leverage against subsequent offending. Day fines can also be used in lieu of probation and parole revocations, and can be combined with any custodial sanction. Judges can provide revocation options similar to those available for probation simply by combining day fines with suspended sentences.
The difference is that no supervision costs are incurred and offenders are not sent back to jail or prison for technical violations. Calculating Day Fines Day fines take the financial circumstances of the offender into account. Gravity of the offense. The number of fine units also called offense units imposed is based on the gravity of the offense. Most jurisdictions have written guidelines that rank offenses by severity and then assign a fine unit to each.
The range of fine units varies greatly by country. For example, in Sweden the range is from 1 to units. In Germany the range is from 1 to units. Court officials determine the daily income of the offender. The daily income is the net amount an offender makes per day minus certain fixed expenses.
Junger-Tas, , p.
Deductions take into account the costs an offender incurs because of dependents, including a nonworking spouse and children, fixed obligations and basic living expenses Tonry and Hamilton, , p. Once these two factors have been determined, the officer calculates the amount of fine imposed by multiplying the fine units an offender receives by his or her daily income adjusted for family and housing obligations.
Several issues arise in the computation of the day fine. Only regular salary and other legitimate income i. Criminal earnings are excluded from the calculation. Day fines were first implemented in Finland in Other Nordic countries Sweden, Denmark and Norway followed suit. Starting in , day fines have been successfully implemented in Germany,. Although these systems have similar structures, there are variations in practice. The minimum number assigned to a day fine unit is one, and the maximum is Should an offender fail to pay all or a portion of the day fine, the portion unpaid may be converted to a term of imprisonment.
Two unpaid day fines correspond to imprisonment for one day. Sweden adopted day fines in Thornstedt, , p. In the Swedish day fine system, the number of day fine units represents the measure of punishment, and the amount of each day fine unit is estimated in accordance with the financial situation of the accused.
Fines account for roughly 70, of the , sentences handed out annually. The police manage day fine collection as an ordinary debt 1. Payments may be made at the bank or by Internet; defaults lead to confiscation of automobiles and home furnishings. Day fines in Denmark range between one and 60 units. They can be combined with other sanctions e. Fines and imprisonment are the two categories of sentences imposed. Fines have an exact conversion scale to days in prison, and nonpayment leads to imprisonment for the balance of the unpaid fine units.
Unlike the Swedish courts, Danish courts practice deterrence and escalate penalties for repeat offenses. Much research at the time showed that short sentences did little to rehabilitate offenders and that low-level offenders who were sent to jail for a short period of time became hardened by the system and came out more violent and dangerous than they were before they went in. The findings were positive, so the Criminal Justice Act of mandated a national system of unit fines to take effect in October The unit-fines system was abandoned 7 months later.
The true reasons for this change are unclear but many cite negative media coverage and the misapplication of the fine as justification for its abandonment. Tonry and Lynch, , pp. Their history is as long as those of European societies. The Dominican Republic claims to have started their system in Regulation-based fines are not income-based but, like salary4. Like the Danish system, they establish an equivalency between fine units and days in prison Gonzalez and Garita, The table below classifies the countries by the type of system they use. Table 1.
Efforts to Incorporate Day Fines Despite impressions to the contrary, fines are fairly widely imposed as criminal sanctions in the U. The most frequent applications are for traffic violations and other minor offenses Tonry and Hamilton, , p. The court has limited jurisdiction, and hears only misdemeanor cases. Tonry and Hamilton, , p. Milwaukee Municipal Court Experiment.
In , the Milwaukee Municipal Court started a week experimental program to test whether the day fine could successfully be used as a substitute for the traditional fine in punishing low-level noncriminal offenses. The court issued day fines for some offenders and continued to use traditional fines for others, who were designated as an experimental control group.
click here Day fines in the Milwaukee experiment applied only to noncriminal violations. They resulted in reduced total fine collections and as a result, they were abandoned Tonry and Lynch, , p.
Maricopa County Ariz. Probation Project. Started in , the F. These offenders have nonetheless historically received supervised probation. In place of this supervised probation, offenders are fined. Vera Institute of Justice, This project included misdemeanors and felonies punishable by probation excluding Marion County, which covered only misdemeanors. In Alabama Code of Ala. In Alaska Alaska Stat. In Oklahoma 22 Okla.
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The day fine cannot exceed 50 percent of the net wages earned and shall be paid to the local community sentencing system as reparation.