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One general predicted that the backlog in Birmingham would take six months to process. But who would take on this massive task? The Postal Division continually sought to secure additional officers by requisition from the Reinforcement System and from the Zone of the Interior. Army was created by a law signed by President Franklin D.

Roosevelt on 1 July New WAC recruits underwent four to six weeks of basic training, which included a physical training program, often followed by four to twelve weeks of specialist training. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt and civil rights leader Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune successfully advocated for the admittance of African-American women as enlisted personnel and officers in the WAC, although as in the rest of the Army, segregation prevailed.

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After several units of white women were sent to serve in the European theater, African-American organizations pressed the War Department to extend the opportunity to serve overseas to African-American WACs. In November , the War Department acquiesced.

Major later Lieutenant Colonel Charity Edna Adams who took the surname Earley upon her marriage in was selected to command the battalion. The women learned to identify enemy aircraft, ships, and weapons; to climb ropes; to board and evacuate ships; and to do long marches with rucksacks. On 3 February , the first contingent of the battalion sailed for Britain.

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They traveled by train to Birmingham, England. Within a few days of their arrival, they held a military parade for Lieutenant General John C.

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Lee, which was watched by a number of curious local citizens. A second contingent arrived in Birmingham from Scotland fifty days later.

These buildings were unheated and dimly lit, the windows blacked out to prevent light showing during nighttime air raids. Rats sought out packages of spoiled cakes and cookies. As it was a cold winter, the women wore long johns and extra layers of clothing under their coats while working in these warehouses. The unit members were organized into three separate eight-hour shifts so work continued around the clock, seven days a week.

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They tracked individual servicemembers by maintaining about seven million information cards including serial numbers to distinguish different individuals with the same name. They investigated insufficiently addressed mail for clues to determine the intended recipient, and they handled the sad duty of returning mail addressed to servicemembers who had died. The women of the th were initially the subject of a great deal of curiosity from the local citizens of Birmingham, who came to watch them at work. Major Adams received official greetings from a number of civilian and U.

In time, many of the women of the th made friends in the local community and found the locals to be polite and even friendly. The women were welcome in British public spaces and were sometimes invited into private homes for tea. The American Home Front in Color. Daring Raids and Brutal Reprisals. Internment of Japanese Americans. Battle of Midway and the Aleutian Campaign. The North African Campaign.

Women at War. The Eastern Front. The Pacific Islands. The Allied Invasion of Europe. The Fall of Nazi Germany. In a move that was intended to reflect positively on the determination of the Unionist administration but which instead drew criticism from some Unionist politicians as cynical electioneering, crops were also planted in the grounds of the Stormont Estate.


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By , sustained efforts to increase the country's food production had resulted in the total acreage of Northern Ireland's agricultural sector roughly doubling relative to pre-war levels. One of Northern Ireland's most important contributions to the war effort was that it effectively acted as a staging platform for Allied forces. Like many other parts of the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland played host to large numbers of American service personnel as a staging point for major theatres of combat such as North Africa in 'Operation Torch' and later the D-Day landings in Normandy.

The number of American servicemen stationed in Northern Ireland peaked at , although as many as , passed through the country during the course of the war.

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Despite being spread out across various parts of Northern Ireland, their arrival had the potential to create a considerable degree of social tension. Crimes against local civilians by American servicemen did occur, although they were infrequent and often of a minor nature such as the theft of small amounts of farm produce to supplement military rations.

In one extreme case, Private William Harrison of the U.

Army Air Corps murdered a seven year old girl in Killycolpy, County Tyrone, a crime for which he was later hanged in The presence of black soldiers in Northern Ireland added an additional racial dimension to interactions between American servicemen and locals. In March , a fight broke out between a group of black servicemen and local civilians outside a cafe in Belfast's Donegall Street. Two of the civilians who had reportedly instigated the violence were hospitalised with stab wounds, while the serviceman, who later admitted wielding a knife, lost two thirds of his pay and was detained for six months by American military authorities.

Racial segregation was effected unofficially in several towns west of Lough Neagh, although according to Jeffery this system was mainly designed to protect American soldiers from each other rather than to shelter them against local feeling. Finally, Northern Ireland played a key role in the Second World War as a result of its geographical importance. Several aerodromes were constructed in Northern Ireland during the war, and the flying of sorties utilising the Donegal Air Corridor from Lough Erne proved an important step in closing the air gap in the Battle of the Atlantic.

Similarly, the presence of large numbers of American, British and Canadian ships in the port at Lisahally proved crucial in defeating the U-Boat threat. Writing in the mid s, W. It became our most westerly base for the repair, the working up and refuelling of destroyers, corvettes and frigates. By that critical Spring when battle for the security of our Atlantic lifelines finally turned our way, Londonderry was the most important escort base in the north-western approaches.

Similarly, when the ceremony surrounding the official surrender of the remnants of the U-Boat fleet was organised in mid , the Commander and Chief of Western Approaches, Admiral Max Horton, insisted that it be held at Lisahally given its pivotal importance during the war. Manchester, , pp — Barton, B. Hill ed.